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Author Guidelines

Instructions to Authors

The Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (JBCS) accepts manuscripts either online or via e-mail as attachment. The manuscripts should have neither been previously published elsewhere nor under consideration by any other periodical. Decision about acceptance of a manuscript for publication in JBCS is based on a double-blind peer review process. All manuscripts submitted must be original and preferably sent electronically to our online submission and review system, JBCS Editorial Manager. 

For new author registration, kindly click NEW USER in the main page of the journal, fill up and submit the user registration form. A username and password will then be sent to the email given within 3 working days. Authors and reviewers encountering problems with the system may contact the editorial team or the technical assistant listed on the main page. Once manuscript is accepted for publication, all submissions must be accompanied by completed Copyright Assignment Form and Authorship Agreement Form. Submissions received via hard copy will NOT be considered. Manuscripts submitted using Microsoft Word doc. or docx. files are preferred. Please DO NOT submit the manuscript in PDF file.

Preparation of a Manuscript

For a manuscript to be submitted to JBCS, please use ISO A4 setting (210 × 297 mm), 12-point Arial font and double-spaced throughout. There should be a 2 cm wide margin on all sides. The total size for all files of a manuscript must NOT exceed 3MB. To preserve the anonymity of respective subjects, all potentially identifying information must be removed from text, images, charts, graphs and tables, before the manuscript is submitted to the editorial office of JBCS. It is strongly recommended that authors ensure that the words used in manuscripts convey the intended meaning both accurately and clearly. Failure to do so may delay the review and publication of the manuscript. 

For a manuscript submitted for the sole purpose of publication in JBCS, each of the following components of a manuscript should begin on a new page and number the pages consecutively starting with the title page.

a. Abstract

b. Manuscript Text

c. Figures & Table (if applicable)

d. Acknowledgements (if any)

e. References

f. Copyright Assignment Form

g. Authorship Agreement Form

Title page

The title page should carry

a: The title of the article which should be concise and informative.

b: Author’s name as family name followed by initials of the first and middle name of author e.g., Muhammad Arshad Qamar (Qamar MA).

c: Name of department / affiliation of author(s).

d: Full Name, postal address, telephone/fax number with country code and valid email address of the corresponding author.

e: Running title

f: Type of manuscript e.g., original article, case report, review article, quiz or letter to the editor.

g: Subject of manuscript e.g., medical, biomedical, dental or pharmaceutical science Manuscript Text.

For a complete manuscript, the following applies:

(a) Abstract and Key words

The abstract of a manuscript should be between 150-300 words depending upon the complexity of the article. All original articles must be accompanied by structured abstracts, divided into the following headings: Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusion while all other categories of manuscripts may have unstructured abstracts. Do not include any references in the abstract and use few abbreviations if necessary and spell out what they stand for in full.

(b) Text 

This should consist of the headings, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. References and Figures mentioned in the text should be written in Arabic numerals (e.g. 1, 2, 3), while Tables in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, III). The number of words limits for various text types are as follows:

Original article: up to 4,000 words excluding abstract and references

Review articles: up to 6,000 words excluding abstract and references

Case report: up to 3,000 words excluding abstract and references

Quiz: up to 1,500 words excluding abstract and references

Letters to the editor: up to 800 words excluding references.

(c) Acknowledgements

Financial grant from a department or technical support from a person etc may be mentioned under this section. Similarly, each author’s conflict of interest and financial disclosure, including declaration of no financial interest must be included in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript. 

d) References 

It is the authors’ responsibility to check all references very carefully for accuracy and completeness. They should be in Vancouver style and numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript text. These numbers should be inserted in brackets () each time the author cite. For example, Robina et al., {6} reported similar findings…………Other references to the paper should be in the same manner. For example, recent studies have shown the similar findings {4, 7}. Ashfaq {2} demonstrated that………

“Unpublished observations” and “personal communications” cannot be used as references; if cited, a letter (from the person quoted granting permission) must be submitted and will be upon editorial approval for use as a reference. Examples of references used in a manuscript exclusively for JBCS are given below.

Reference to an article

Abdel-Hamid AZ, Rawy S, Saad A F. Identification of the genetic marker associated with the resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz.2006; 101:pp.863-868.

In the above reference, actual names of the authors are Abdel Hamid Zaki Abdel-Hamid, Saeed Rawy and Azza Fathi Saad. Title of the article is in italic followed by the name of the journal abbreviated as Index Medicus, year, volume number and pages. Up to 5 authors can be mentioned in the manner described above. If there are more than five authors, use et al., after the fifth author. 

The title of the journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus while complete name of non–indexed journals should be written as e.g., The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 

Reference to a book

William J G. Cindy L S. Principles of Human Physiology.2nd ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2005. Reference to a book chapter Aaron T. Megakaryocytopoisis Kinetics and Platelet Radiolabeling. In Rossi’s Principles of Transfusion Medicine.3rd ed.pp179-184.NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2002.

Reference to a report

Committee on Mercury Hazards in Dentistry. Code of practice for dental mercury hygiene. London: Department of Health and Social Security, 1979, publication no. DHSS 79-F3 72. 

Newspaper article

Kee H C. Water is water, no? The Star. 2009 May 9; WE15. 

Online journal/books Complete web address should be given in the end of a reference using the same manner described above.

(e) Tables

Acceptable tables as part of manuscript text submitted for JBCS include Word; WordPerfect and Excel. Please make sure that tables are appended to the end of the manuscript text file. Tables should neither be submitted as a separate file nor as photographs. They should be numbered consecutively in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, III) in the order they appear in the text with brief titles. Place explanations of table in the footnotes including non-standard abbreviations that are used in Tables. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules. Ensure that names of authors or the institutions do not appear in the tables. If data from another published source are used, the author should obtain permission for publication prior to submission of the manuscripts and acknowledged fully.

(f) Figures

All figures must be submitted in a finished form, ready for reproduction. They are required to show the essential features described in the text. Please use A1, BMP, DOC, PDF, PPT, XLS or JPG format and ensure that the files are created and saved at a resolution of 300 dots/inch (DPI) or higher for half tone images and 1,200 DPI for line art. A separate file should be submitted for each Figure or Figure part. 

Authors should retain backup files of all digital graphic files. Line figures should be professionally drawn and submitted electronically or scanned using a 600 DPI (or better) printer. A separate image is required for each figure part. Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size so that when they are reduced in size for publication, each item will be legible. Figures should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (e.g. Fig. 1, 2, 3) according to the order in which they have been cited in the text.

If a figure has been previously published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required, irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain. 

Authors’ names and affiliations should not appear on the images. All figure parts relating to one subject should have the same figure number. Symbols, arrows or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Symbols, arrows, numbers or letters used to identify areas of interest on photographic prints should be removable. If photographs of persons are used, the subjects or patients must not be identifiable. If this is unavoidable, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission from the patient or legal guardian to use the photograph. Do not send images or other material (including charts, photographs and tables) that have identifying information such as patient’s names or initials, birth dates, national identity card numbers, hospital numbers, or other identifying data. These must be removed before submitting the material to BHSB. Authors will be asked to replace poor quality figures. The Editorial Board reserves the right to edit figures to a size compatible with the description in the text.

(g) Legends for illustrations

Legends for illustrations should be presented using double-spacing with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining and original magnification for photomicrographs. For drawings and graphs, state the important salient points leading to the desired conclusion.

(h) Abbreviations and symbols

Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations and symbols in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should proceed unless it is a standard unit of measurement. In general, the use of S.I. Units (International System of Units) is encouraged.


(i) Running title and page number

Use running title as Header in 8-point font Calibri Body and page number as Footer on right hand side of each page.

Authorship agreement form

All submissions must be accompanied by a completed  Authorship Agreement which should be signed by all authors, declaring any conflicting interest, authorship and fulfilling of the ethical requirement.

Copyright assignment form

All submissions must be accompanied by a completed  Copyright Transfer Agreement which should be signed by the corresponding author. The form can either be scanned and submitted with the manuscript online or emailed separately to:


Assoc Prof Dr. Badrul Hisham Bin Yahaya

Editor in Chief 

Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI),

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam,13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang Malaysia

Fax: 604-5622468 | Tel: 604-5622888 (006 Country Code)

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to justify authorship. The Editor may require the corresponding author to justify the assignment of authorship. Submitted manuscripts which do not meet the above guidelines will be returned to the corresponding author prior to the review process.

The Editorial board keeps unconditional right to determine the style and if necessary, edit and shorten any material accepted for publication in JBCS. All communications with the Editor/Editorial staff regarding manuscripts (on the issue of corrections, retractions, editorial expressions of concern, and others) must be in WRITTEN form, preferably via email to: or

The decision on the priority of publication is strictly determined by the Editorial Board. Appeals would be considered if these are reported in writing to the Editor.




Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. Please provide at least two reviewers.Insert name, email's of reviewer at comments.
  6. Please kindly ensure that Copyright Transfer Agreement and Authorship Agreement Form has been filled up, and ethical approval code are available in the submitted manuscript. For manuscripts containing pictures of identifiable patients, a patient consent form for publication must be filled up and kept by the author. To preserve patient confidentiality, do not submit form to JBCS unless requested.

Copyright Notice

JBCS Publication Ethics

JBCS Publication Ethics JBCS is committed to ensure the publication process follows specific academic ethics. Hence, Authors, Reviewers and Editors are required to conform to standards of ethical guidelines.

Authors should discuss objectively the significance of research work, technical detail and relevant references to enable others to replicate the experiments. JBCS do not accept fraudulent or inaccurate statements that may constitute towards unethical conduct.

Authors should ensure the originality of their works. In cases where the work and/or words of others have been used, appropriate acknowledgements should be made. JBCS do not accept plagiarism in all forms that constitute towards unethical publishing of an article.

This includes simultaneous submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal. Corresponding author is responsible for the full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.

Reviewers of JBCS treat manuscripts received for review as confidential documents. Therefore, Reviewers must ensure the confidentiality and should not use privileged information and/or ideas obtained through peer review for personal advantage.

Reviews should be conducted based on academic merit and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments. In cases where selected Reviewer feels unqualified to review a manuscript, Reviewer should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process in TWO (2) weeks time from the review offer is made.

In any reasonable circumstances, Reviewers should not consider to evaluate manuscripts if they have conflicts of interest (i.e: competitive, collaborative and/or other connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions affiliated to the papers).

Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively based on their academic merit. JBCS strictly do not allow editors to use unpublished information of authors’ without the written consent of the author. Editors are required to take appropriate responsive actions if ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.

The JBCS retains the copyright of published manuscripts under the terms of the Copyright Transfer Agreement. However, the journal permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided permission to reuse, distribute and reproduce is obtained from the Journal's Editor and the original work is properly cited.

While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (JBCS)

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences requires authors to declare all competing interests in relation to their work. All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘competing interests’ section at the end of the manuscript listing all competing interests (financial and non-financial). Where authors have no competing interests, the statement should read “The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.” Editors may ask for further information relating to competing interests.

Editors and reviewers are also required to declare any competing interests and will be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists.Competing interests may be financial or non-financial. A competing interest exists when the authors’ interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by their personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations. Authors should disclose any financial competing interests but also any non-financial competing interests that may cause them embarrassment if they were to become public after the publication of the article.

All research must have been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework. If there is suspicion that work has not taken place within an appropriate ethical framework, Editors will follow the Misconduct policy and may reject the manuscript, and/or contact the author(s)’ institution or ethics committee. On rare occasions, if the Editor has serious concerns about the ethics of a study, the manuscript may be rejected on ethical grounds, even if approval from an ethics committee has been obtained.

Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement detailing this, including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate, must appear in all manuscripts reporting such research. Further information and documentation to support this should be made available to Editors on request.

Experimental research on vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. The Basel Declaration outlines fundamental principles to adhere to when conducting research in animals and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has also published ethical guidelines.

A statement detailing compliance with relevant guidelines (e.g. the revised Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK and Directive 2010/63/EU in Europe) and/or ethical approval (including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate) must be included in the manuscript. The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right to reject a manuscript, especially if the research involves protocols that are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms of animal research. In rare cases, Editors may contact the ethics committee for further information.


For all research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent or guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript, this includes to all manuscripts that include details, images, or videos relating to individual participants.


JBCS strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spreadsheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible

Authors who do not wish to share their data must state that data will not be shared, and give the reason.


Privacy Statement

The peer-review of a manuscript is a confidential process. Reviewers should keep the whole process completely confidential. They should consult the Senior Editor and obtain permission before consulting another colleague for help in the peer-review of the submitted manuscript. Reviewers should not disclose any information whatsoever to anyone before publication of the manuscript