Astaxanthin cream alters type I procollagen and Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene expression induced by ultraviolet B irradiation in rat skin

Arisa Siti Sofiah, Ronny Lesmana


Anti-oxidant properties of astaxanthin might protect skin from premature aging caused by UVB-rays exposure. In the present study, we explore whether topical astaxanthin cream could decrease MMP-1 and increase type I procollagen gene expression on UVB-exposed skin. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 3 group: group that only exposed to UVB (P0) without topical treatment, UVB-exposed groups with base-cream treatment (P1) and UVB-exposed groups with astaxanthin-cream treatment (P2). UVB exposure was done three times a week with a dose of 130mJ/cm2 for 6 consecutive weeks. Creams were applied daily. Skin biopsy was performed to examine the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen using semi-quantitative PCR and Western blot technique. The result showed that the expression of MMP-1 in P2 groupwas significantly lower than P0 group (P<0,05). Antioxidant activity of topical astaxanthin might be involved in decreasing MMP-1 gene expression. Therefore, topical astaxanthin might be considered as a treatment to protect skin from UVB-induced photoaging


Astaxanthin cream, photoaging, MMP-1, type I procollagen, UVB rays

Full Text:



Ambati, R. R., Phang, S.-M., Ravi, S. & Aswathanarayana, R. G. : Astaxanthin: Sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications—A review. Marine drugs, 2014;12, 128-152.

Baumman, L. & Saghari, S. Basic Science of the Dermis. In: Baumann, L., Saghari, S. & Weisberg, E. (eds.) Cosmetic Dermatology: Principles and Practice. 2 ed. 2009; New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brennan, M., Bhatti, H., Nerusu, K. C., Bhagavathula, N., Kang, S., Fisher, G. J., Varani, J. & Voorhees, J. J. Matrix metalloproteinase‐1 is the major collagenolytic enzyme responsible for collagen damage in UV‐irradiated human skin. Photochemistry and photobiology, 2003; 78, 43-48.

Darvin, M. E., Fluhr, J. W., Schanzer, S., Richter, H., Patzelt, A., Meinke, M. C., Zastrow, L., Golz, K., Doucet, O. & Sterry, W. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study. Journal of Dermatological science, 2011; 64, 53-58.

Demeule, M., Brossard, M., Pagé, M., Gingras, D. & Béliveau, R. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by green tea catechins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 2000; 1478, 51-60.

Dhankhar, J., Kadian, S. S. & Sharma, A. Astaxanthin: A potential carotenoid. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2012; 3, 1246.

Draelos, Z. D. Nutrition and enhancing youthful-appearing skin. Clinics in Dermatology, 2010; 28, 400-408.

Fanjul-Fernández, M., Folgueras, A. R., Cabrera, S. López-Otín, C. 2010. Matrix metalloproteinases: evolution, gene regulation and functional analysis in mouse models. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 2010; 1803, 3-19.

Farage, M., Miller, K., Elsner, P. & Maibach, H. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in skin ageing: a review. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2008; 30, 87-95.

Fisher, G. J., Kang, S., Varani, J., Bata-Csorgo, Z., Wan, Y., Datta, S. & Voorhees, J. J. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Archives of Dermatology, 2002;138, 1462-1470.

Fisher, G. J. & Voorhees, J. J. Molecular mechanisms of photoaging and its prevention by retinoic acid: ultraviolet irradiation induces MAP kinase signal transduction cascades that induce Ap-1-regulated matrix metalloproteinases that degrade human skin in vivo. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 1998; 61-68.

Gilkes, D. M., Semenza, G. L. & Wirtz, D. Hypoxia and the extracellular matrix: drivers of tumour metastasis. Nature Reviews Cancer, 2014; 14, 430-439.

Hyatt, J. P. K., Mccall, G. E., Kander, E. M., Zhong, H., Roy, R. R. & Huey, K. A. PAX3/7 expression coincides with MyoD during chronic skeletal muscle overload. Muscle & Nerve, 2008; 38, 861-866.

Imokawa, G. & Ishida, K. Biological mechanisms underlying the ultraviolet radiation-induced formation of skin wrinkling and sagging I: reduced skin elasticity, highly associated with enhanced dermal elastase activity, triggers wrinkling and sagging. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2015; 16, 7753-7775.

Kang, M. H., Choi, S. & Kim, B.-H. Skin Wound Healing Effects and Action Mechanism of Acai Berry Water Extracts. Toxicological Research, 2017; 33, 149.

Krieg, T., Aumailley, M., Koch, M., Chu, M. & Uitto, J. Collagens, Elastic Fibers, and Other Extracellular Matrix Protein of the Dermis. In: Wolff K, G. L., Katz Si, Glichrest Ba, Paller as, Leffel Dj (ed.) Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 2012. 8 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Krutmann, J. Pathomechanisms of Photoaged Skin. In: Farage Ma, M. K., Maibach Hi (ed.) Textbook of Aging Skin. 2010. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Liang, J., Pei, X., Zhang, Z., Wang, N., Wang, J. & Li, Y. The Protective Effects of Long‐Term Oral Administration of Marine Collagen Hydrolysate from Chum Salmon on Collagen Matrix Homeostasis in the Chronological Aged Skin of Sprague‐Dawley Male Rats. Journal of Food Science, 2010; 75.

Miki, W. Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1991; 63, 141-146.

Pan, X., Chen, Z., Huang, R., Yao, Y. & Ma, G. Transforming growth factor β1 induces the expression of collagen type I by DNA methylation in cardiac fibroblasts. PloS one, 2013; 8, e60335.

Pittayapruek, P., Meephansan, J., Prapapan, O., Komine, M. & Ohtsuki, M. 2016. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Photoaging and Photocarcinogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2016; 17, 868.

Quan, T., He, T., Kang, S., Voorhees, J. J. & Fisher, G. J. 2004. Solar ultraviolet irradiation reduces collagen in photoaged human skin by blocking transforming growth factor-β type II receptor/Smad signaling. The American journal of pathology, 165, 741-751.

Quan, T., Qin, Z., Xia, W., Shao, Y., Voorhees, J. J. & Fisher, G. J. Matrix-degrading Metalloproteinases in Photoaging. The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (JBCS)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (JBCS) publishes original research articles, short review, short communication, case reports, quiz and letter to editor that covering the areas of fundamental aspects of biomedical and clinical sciences, from pre-clinical towards translational research and their applications in medicine, dentistry and healthcare management. JBCS aims to provide a platform for basic science and clinical researchers to communicate and share their research findings to the advancement of technologies in biomedical and clinical sciences by providing maximum access to scholarly communication.

Flag Counter           


                                              Copyright © 2016 AMDI Publisher, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Sains Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
                                            Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.