An overview of recent counting methods for Ki67 IHC staining

Fahmi Akmal Dzulkifli, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, Hasnan Jaafar


Ki67, a nuclear protein presents in cells that is usually associated with tumor cell proliferation. Therefore, physical quantification of Ki67 is a direct measure cell proliferation activity. Immunohistochemical staining is known to be an effective method of assessing the proportion of tumor cells. Currently, there are various techniques for counting Ki67 in different types of cancer. This paper provides an overview of recent scoring methods of Ki67, which includes ‘eye-balling’ estimation, vision counting with a microscope or viewer software, manual counting of the camera-captured or digital image and automated counting.


Immunohistochemical stain, Ki67, Proliferating rate estimation.

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