Mutagenicity Testing and DNA Damage Analysis of Malaysian White Portland Cement Using Ames Test and Comet Assay

Siti Suraya Zulkifli, KANNAN THIRUMULU PONNURAJ, Norhayati Luddin


The aim of the current study was to determine the mutagenic effect and DNA damage of Malaysian white Portland cement (MWPC) and White mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using Ames test and Comet assay. The cytotoxicity of WMTA and MWPC was evaluated using MTT assay, mutagenicity using Ames test in the absence and presence of metabolic activation system (S9 mix) on Salmonella strains (TA98, TA102, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538) and DNA damage using Comet assay on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF) cell line. Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. Based on the MTT assay, the IC50for WMTA and MWPC was 18.71 and 19.91 mg/ml, IC25 was 3.33 and 3.55 mg/ml and IC10was 0.59 and 0.63 mg/ml respectively. These values were further employed in Comet assay. Ames test revealed that WMTA and MWPC did not cause any mutagenic effect as the number of revertant colonies was less than that of the negative control. In the Comet assay, no significant comet formation was found in HPLFs treated with WMTA, MWPC and negative control except the positive control. Hence, it can be concluded that MWPC is non-mutagenic and does not cause any DNA damage under the present test conditions.


Cytotoxicity; DNA damage; Malaysian white Portland cement; mineral trioxide aggregate; mutagenicity

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