Validation of the Malay Version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) among Malaysian Cancer Patients

Mohammad Farris Iman Leong Bin Abdullah, Rohayu Hami, Gukula Kumar Appalanaido, Nizuwan Azman, Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff, Siti Shahanis Md Sharif


It is important to study optimism as it is negatively correlated with anxiety and depressive and positively correlated with quality of life in cancer patients. This study translated and investigated the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) among Malaysian cancer patients. The validated Malay version of the LOT-R will be used for assessing level of optimism among Malaysian cancer patients in future studies and determine factors associated with it in order to design effective psychosocial intervention which will enhance level of optimism in cancer patients. Concurrent translation and back translation of original English version of the LOT-R to Malay was performed and the Malay version was administered to 195 cancer patients of different cancer diagnoses at baseline assessment and repeated 2 months later at follow up. Reliability was assessed with internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), validity was assessed with face, content, convergent, and discriminant validities. Construct validity was examined with exploratory factor analysis. Two third of the participants (n = 129/195; 66%) were of middle age, three forth were females (n = 142/195; 72.8%) and eight tenth were Malays (n = 160/195; 82.1%). The LOT-R (Malay) total score (Cronbach’s α = 0.58; ICC = 0.62) and its domains (Cronbach’s α [Optimism) = 0.60; Cronbach’s α[Pessimism) = 0.42; ICC[Optimism] = 0.61; ICC[Pessimism] = 0.59) demonstrated questionable internal consistencies but acceptable test-retest reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were achieved by the LOT-R (Malay). Construct validity was also demonstrated by the LOT-R (Malay) as exploratory factor analysis showed that all the items had factor loadings > 0.4. The LOT-R (Malay) has acceptable psychometric properties and suitable to assess optimism in Malaysian cancer patients. It should be validated for use in other Malaysian populations. 


Life Orientation Test-Revised (Malay), Malaysian cancer patients, reliability, validity

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